Table of Contents
Original Definition of Arudha Pada
BPHS (Brihat Parāshara Horā Shāstra) is very clear about the function of Arudha. According to BPHS, Arudha has two functions : its main role is about the MEANS through which the Bhāva gives its fruits, and its secondary role is that it helps or retards the magnitude of the fruit of its Bhāva depending on the conditions of the Arudha. For instance, if 11H in the Arudha of Lagna is malefic , then the source of income will be unethical : this is the CHIEF function of Arudha. But if the 11H of Arudha Lagna is strong, then the fruit of 11H of Lagna chart will be further strengthened in magnitude of income too. "Pada" in Sanskrit means "means" to attain some goal. That is why it denotes FOOT also, because foot or step is needed to reach somewhere. There, Pada in astrology means the characteristics of MEANS through which results of a bhāva are attained. This view is based on BPHS.
Ethical or unethical MEANS to fulfill one's objectives are related to Arudha and other PADAS. If 3H from AL is malefic, you will try to obtain the fruits of your D-1's 3H through malefic Parākrama and you will succeed in your malefic efforts if that house is strong. Twelve houses of Parākrama-pada show various details of QUALITY and QUANTITY of means and ends of your Parākrama. And Graha-pada of lord of 3H in D-1 will show the time of that fruit which will be obtained during the dashā of that planet. Other divisionals and their padas have similar properties.
All versions of BPHS (Brihat Parāshara Horā Shāstra) describe correct method of computing AL and other Pada charts, which I need not reproduce here. But two points are ignored by a majority of astrologers which need to mentioned here :-
AL or Arudha-Lagna and other Pada charts are based on Bhāva-chalita according to classics, because they are based on Bhāvas and their Lords.
( Hence, this is the ONLY option in Kundalee software. I have NEVER incorporated any other method in my software, although I tested all possible alternatives.).
The Degree of AL should be used to find out the beneficence or maleficence of AL on account of Vargas, but this view does not allow any change in computation of AL. For instance, if AL's navamsha is exalted, it add to the beneficence of AL. After all, verse-28 (verse-29 in English edition) in AL chapter of BPHA states that the yogas of AL are deduced along same principles which are used to deduce yogas of Kārakāmsha chart , and in latter case navāmsha plays an important role in evaluating D-1's Kārakāmsha.
Now, here is one proof in favour of my method of Unequal SSS-BPHS Bhāvachalita :-
The English translation of BPHS is based on a spurious Hindi version of 1946 by Pt Sitaram Jha. He boasted shamelessly in the Introduction of Hindi version that he removed many portions from his manuscript and added many new portions from other books !! It is a CRIME to tamper an ancient work of Rishi. Moreover, he did not explain which portions were tampered by him, hence his edition is entirely unreliable. English translator R Santhanam knew it, but preferred his edition (as mentioned in Introduction of English edition) because Santhanam used equal house division for Bhāva chart like Sitaram Jha. Sitaram Jha had deleted the entire chapter on unequal Bhāvachalita. PVR Narasimha Rao refused to add this unequal Parashari Bhāvachalita in JHora even after I sent him scqanned copies of BPHS edition by Pt Devachandra Jha of Chowkhamba who did not tamper the manuscript, and I also sent him scanned copy of SSS (Shri Surya Siddhanta) which proved that ancient Indian Bhāva chart was only the UNEQUAL division, although internet astrologers are wrongly attributing the unequal division to Sripati. But PVR answered that these verses are interpolations into BPHS, and ignored the verses of SSS ! He added his own preference in the option bearing my name ! Even today, the JHora option carrying my name shows Bhāvachalita according to some UNKNOWN wrong method instead of SSS-BPHS method. Here is the proof in English version which shows that unequal house division was present even in the original manuscruipt used for English and its original Hindi versioins of BPHS :-
The last verses just before the chapter on Arudha describe the effects of a Bhāva. In it, verse-18 of English edition of Santhanam states : "If a Bhāva extends to two rasis, the rectification will be done as per both the lords."
This reference is in the context of AV (Ashtaka Varga). Everyone knows that AV deals with rasis and not Bhāvas. But here we find AV fruits as per Lines or Dots used for Bhāva-fruits. These Bhāvas may include more than one rasi according to this English translation and its Sanskrit verse, but the method described in BPHS illustrating the procedure of computing such a Bhāvachalita was completely deleted by Sitaram Jha, but he forgot to delete this verse which proves his DISHONESTY. Unfortunately, most of modern astrologers use Bhāva chart based on whole signs assumed to be same as one whole house, which should be ONLY for computing Bhāva-Lagna (and HL, GL) according to BPHS and not for Bhāva (chalita) chart.
AL must be computed according to unequal BC, but its DEGREE needs to be computed EXACTLY in order to find out its Varga-beneficence/maleficence.
Arudha Pada (AL) Ill-Defined as Perception : Truth versus Māyā
There is no classical support in any ancient text about Arudha being related to perceptions as some modern astrologers are propagating. "Arudha is about perceptions" is a modern invention. Mental perceptions are linked with not Lagna's pada charts but with Chandra Kundali and its pada charts. Lagna is not Mind but Physical existence. Moreover, perception is an ever-changing , subjective and vague term. When astrologers are fighting over basic OBJECTIVE facts, it is useless to argue about SUBJECTIVE perceptions.
There are countless persons who regard this world as Truth. But this view is not VEDIC. Vedic Astrology must not oppose the Vedic view. The last verse of Yajurveda is the foundation of Vedānta ("anta" of Veda) ; it explicitly states :
'This golden (=attractive) world of senses is the lid which hides Truth, and Truth is the Purusha which is same in me as in the Sun-God.'
Everyone deserves the right to propound his/her views, but not in the name of some ancient philosophy. Vedic Astrology cannot go against Vedic Thought.
Māyā versus Satya is also a modern invention, and this line of thinking is diametrically opposite to Vedic-Puranic philosophy which regards both This World as well as the Perceptions about This World as Māyā, Satya is the pure Atman.
How many astrologers use Pada and Upapada in actual chart readings ? If someone does not use these things, how he/she can gain any experience ?
Modern Definitions of Upapada
Upapada is defined variously by various modern interpretors. There is no traditional commentary on Hora-shāstra of any rishi. Even the basic texts have not been properly preserved. This lack of good commentaries has provided an opportunities to moderners to advance new theories without substantiation or logic.
BPHS defines Upapada as follows :
प्रधानस्य अङ्ग-भावस्य अनुचरस्य पदम् ही यत् । तदेव-उपपदम् गौडम् किम् उप-आरूढम्-उच्यते ॥
It means : "Anga (lagna) bhāva is pradhāna or chief, the pada of its 'anuchara' (follower) is called Upapada, Upa-aroodha or Gauda".
The term "anuchara" has been variously defined by moderners because there is no traditional definition of this term. Jaimini Sutra gives the following definition :
उपपदम् पदम् पित्रनुचरात् ॥ १ ॥ (प्रथम अध्याय, चतुर्थ पाद)
It means : "Upapadam follows the Aroodha-Pada as a son follows the father."
Hence, Jaimini Rishi does not differ from the definition of his guru Veda Vyāsa Ji's father Sage Parāshara. But why these rishis used vague term like "anuchara", instead of giving the definition in easier and clearer terms ?
Following the analogy of son-father, the editor of Chowkhamba edition of BPHS , Pt Devachandra Jha, wrote that upapada is first pada of 5H (5th house) from Lagna.
But the editor of Vārānasi's Sampoornānanda Sanskrit University's edition of Jaimini Sutra, Pt Kamlākānt Shukla, wrote that upa means near, hence upapada must be near the lagna, hence first pada of 2H or 12H from lagna must be upapada, depending on even or odd sign. There is a third school which regards first pada of 12H as upapada in both odd and even signs.
None of these commentators provided either any case studies or other evidences in favour of their views. Now, let us consider what was the original meaning of upapada according to Sages Parāshara and Jaimini.
Original Definition of Upapada
Significance of Upapada according to BPHS and Jaimini Sutra
An analysis of all the verses of BPHS and all sutras of JS (Jaimini Sutra) regarding upapada, we find that upapada's first house is exclusively concerned with various attributes of WIFE and offsprings from her. Is it not senseless to correlate wife with 5H (5th house) , 2H or 12H ? 2H has been related to second wife, but not with offsprings. But the chief function of upapada is first wife and not second wife. Regarding the significance of upapada according to BPHS and JS, it is not far-fetched to link upapada with the pada of 7H. But how 7H can be "upa" with respect to lagna ?
Upa means near, below, lower, etc. Is not 7H just below lagna in Parāshari-style chart (which terms 5H and 9H as Trikona, and they are actually triangular in shape, 1H-4H-7H -10H are called Kendras and are actually in centre in Parāshari-style chart) ? Hence, upa does not means 2H or 12H only, it may mean 7H also.
Similarly, anuchara has been misinterpreted to mean 5H, although 5H has no connection with wife which is the chief topic of upapada. The article Origin and Meaning of Horoscopic Houses (click here) explains the original ideas behind the twelve houses of horoscope, which proves that all twelve houses were related to opposite houses in cause - consequence relationship. This cause - consequence relationship can also be metaphorically described as "leader - anuchara" or "father - son " relation. Thus, in the light of original cause-consequence or leader - anuchara relationships between opposite houses like 1H and 7H. it is not far-fetched to define upapada as pada of 7H from lagna, more so because 7H is related to Kāma. Kāma has two aspects : wife and offsprings. The first or chief house of Upapada also has exactly these two topics : wife and offsprings. Some people may doubt the relation of 7H with offsprings, but they must consider the relation of Kāma as well as of wife's fortunes with number and conditions of offsprings. Following section shows how D7 is related to Kāma(7H) and D9 is related to Dharm-patni (needed for performance of Vedic Karmakāndas and Yagyas, not Kāma-patni of 7H).
Connections Between Bhāvas and Vargas
There is another pointer too : 7th varga (divisional chart) is related to offsprings, which is not a coincidence because all vargas have similar relations with houses : 1H is deha, entire first varga shows various aspects and fortunes of physical existence, 2H is about wealth and so is 2nd varga (horā varga), 3H is about brothers and so is 3rd varga dreshkāna, 4H is about sukha (real happiness in moksha trikona) and 4th varga is about real bhāgya, 5H is about offsprings but there is no 5th varga and therefore 7th varga is for offsprings while 7H is about Kāma which is related to birth of offsprings, 9H is for dharma while 9th varga is about dharma-patni needed for yagya &c and is also related to all other topics, 10H is about career and 10th varga is for major achievements in career, 12H is 9th to 4H and 4th to 9H, hence it denotes both father and mother (10H is for what the native gets from father, 9H is for father's well being), 11H is for income but there is no 11th varga, 4H is for vehicles and so is 12 + 4th = 16th varga, 8H is for secret knowledge related to Moksha Trikona and 12 + 8th varga is for upāsanā, 12H is for Moksha and 12 + 12th = 24th varga is for Knowledge (Vedic philosophy says that Knowledge is the sole passport to Moksha), 3rd house is for Parākrama and 12 + 12 + 3rd = 27th varga is for Bala (strength), 6th is for diseases while 12+12+ 6th = 30th varga is for diseases which should have six parts of a rāshi having five degrees each but actually has only three such parts while remaining 15 degrees apportioned to Jupiter and Mercury instead of being trifurcated because the number of parts are restricted only to five due to five planets allowed to be deities in D30, D40 related to 12+12+12 + 4H of mother hence D40 related to all fruits coming from maternal side, similarly D45 giving fruits coming from father's side because of 45 = 12+12+12+9H, and lastly D60 related to all topics because 12H is related to Moksha which is related to sublimation / fulfilment / relinquishing of all fields of life. Hence, 7th house of any Bhāva is UPA and ANUCHARA of that bhāva.
Case Studies of Upapada
NOTE : all the case studies presented below have been carried out with Kundalee Software in Default Mode (SSS or Shri Surya Siddhanta). Only the results are presented below, charts can be viewed through using free Kundalee Software, by clicking "PADA" button in D-1 bhāvachalita chart, and then clicking Pada-7 "7" button in the 'Pada' form which will open the Kāma-pada or pada of 7H (7th house) of D-1 lagna kundalee.
Jawaharlal Nehru(Birth-place : 77,Mirganj , Red Light Area in Allahabad, Click_Here).
|Birthdata :||Latitude 25:26:17.32 N||Longitude 81:50:11.53 E||Date 14 Nov 1889||Time 23:21 IST (slightly crude)|
Pada of 7H is upapada. In this chart, lagna of D-1 is Cancer (4th rāshi), 7H is Makara (10th rāshi), pada of 7H is 12th rāshi Meena which is highly auspicious because in Upapada Chart lord of 12th rāshi will be lagnesha which is Jupiter. Jupiter is yoga-giver by dint of being lord of 1H + 10H and sitting in own sign in 10H. BPHS says if upapada (Meena sign here) is auspicious, it gives putra-stree-sukha. D1 has 5L Mars being a yoga-giver (5L + 10L) with 35' aspect on 5H, but female planets svagrihi Moon,Venus and Saturn have 26' , 8' and 40 aspects on 5H while male planets Sun and Jupiter have zero aspects. Therefore, male aspect is 35' only while female aspect is 69'. It is further increased by D7 : D7 has 5L Venus being yoga-giver (5L + 10L) sitting with lagnesh Saturn, both being stree-grahas. Pada of 5H is same as lagna chart, while pada of 7H has svagrihi Jupiter giving putra-stree-sukha but in this chart svagrihi Moon in 5H guarantees daughter and not son. Combining all above charts, we find chances of female offspring far out-weighing chances of male offspring. Actually, Jawaharlal had one male child born but he died after one week only in 1924 due to 40' (67%) aspect of Saturn on 5H : Saturn was sitting in 2H and was lord of 7H and 8H. Offsprings need evaluation of many charts, hence let us concentrate on wife factor in judging the upapada. In this case, Jawaharlal upapada is yoga giver : lagnesh Jupiter in own sign in 10H sitting with moola-trinona Ketu as 9L, but Ketu being inimical to Jupiter and therefore to upapada (lagna of upapada chart), and 12L Rahu has bitter inimical full aspect relation with Jupiter. Other relatives of Jupiter were also killers : 2L + 9L Mars in 7H of upapada chart had 54:24 mutual aspect relation with Jupiter, while 11L + 12L malefic Saturn in 6H had 27:58 mutual aspect relation with Jupiter. So many powerful malefic influences on Jupiter and therefore on upapada marred the benefic yoga of Jupiter and killed Kamlā Nehru at an early age of 36 after prolonged illness and unhappiness. In SBC (Sarvato-bhadra-chakra) the letter "k" has maximum vedha : from Rahu, Saturn, Jupiter and Ketu, while Rahu has vedha on Mars : hence all planets influential on upapada are having vedha on Kamlā Nehru. Surya has vedha on all vowels, hence it also has vedha on the initial vowel in "ka". Narapatijayacharyā says that five vedhas guarantees an event. Surya is also malefic in upapada chart, sitting in 8H. Upapada chart shows Saturn to be the killer of male child, and in Vimshottari the male child died in AD of Saturn. But upapada chart has svagrihi Moon in 5H, hence daughter of Jawaharlal must have rāja-yoga.
|Birthdata :||Latitude 25:27:34.1244 N||Longitude 81:51:36.44208 E||Date 19 Nov 1917||Time 23:12:48.7275 IST (rectified from 23:11)|
Upapada iss Tulā, its lord Venus sits with 10L Moon and 5L Rahu : all of them have SBC vedha on letter "F" or PH, while Sun sitting in upapada has vedha on all vowels, including "i" in "Fi" of Firoz Khan (changed to Firoz Gandhi through court affidavit without any change in religion according to many online sources). Sun is malefic in upapada chart, being 11L, while Venus is also 8L. Ketu is a close relative of upapada lord and its relatives, hence Ketu's vedha on "F" is also significant. Five vedhas on "F" ensures marriage with Firoz. But malefic Sun, 8L Venus, and more inimical aspects on upapada than benefic aspects do not ensure an enduring and happy marital life.
|Birthdata :||Latitude 18:58:30 N||Longitude 72:49:33 E||Date 20 Aug 1944||Time 8:11:42.396 IST (+2.396 sec rectified, slightly crude)|
|Birthdata :||Latitude 28:33:42.33 N||Longitude 77:16:36.1 E||Date 18 Jun 1970||Time 14:46:55 IST (slightly crude)|
|Birthdata :||Latitude 24:53:00 N||Longitude 67:03:00 E||Date 21 Jun 1953||Time 20:16:18.74 IST (rectified + 78.74 sec)|
|Birthdata :||Latitude 33:40:00 N||Longitude 93:36:00 W||Date 19 Aug 1946||8:14:00 IST (unrectified)|
|Birthdata :||Latitude 21:38:27.6936 N||Longitude 69:36:10.3313 E||Date 2 Oct 1869||8:11:36 IST (crude)|
|Birthdata :||Latitude 41:55:08 N||Longitude 8:44:14 E||Date 15 Aug 1769||16:35:04 IST (slightly crude)|
|Birthdata :||Latitude 19:12:01.98324 N||Longitude 73:51:33.92568 E||Date 1 Mar 1630||19:12:21.78 IST (slightly crude)|
Jaya Bhaduri (Bachchan)
|Birthdata :||Latitude 22:34:00 N||Longitude 88:21:00 E||Date 9 Apr 1948||13:40:00 IST (unrectified)|
|Birthdata :||Latitude 25:27:00 N||Longitude 81:51:24 E||Date 11 Oct 1942||16:01:12 IST (slightly crude, rectified +12 sec)|
(Others are invited to Send ANALYSIS of such horoscopes for illustrating their views on AL and other Padas).